12. cxxxi. [214] E g. Trin. For the controversy was universal, and both of these great writers had the practical purpose of collecting the best arguments out of the multitude which were suggested in ephemeral literature or verbal debate. But in earlier life he had written rashly of the Holy Spirit (i.e. in Psalm 68:19. ii. The same conclusion is constantly drawn in the Comm. Exterior view of St. Hilary's Catholic Church at Bryn Mawr and California Avenues (5600 north, 2800 west), 1987. 38. ii. In writing the De Trinitate, so far as it dealt directly with the original controversy, it was neither possible nor desirable that Hilary should leave the beaten path. [231] E.g. [311] Isaiah 45:12, the Old Latin, translated from the LXX., having the singular. He was altogether impassible; there entered from without into Him no movement of the feelings, whether pleasure , or pain [287] .' in Matthew 5:15, xii. viii. But the soul may fall below, or rise above, its normal state. xi. [253] Trin. It is difficult to see what Hilary's thought was; perhaps he had not defined it to himself. xi. But, though this attribution is certainly correct, here also we must follow the leading of the Septuagint, which was led to give a wrong title to one Psalm lest we should attach importance to the correct title of another. [209] According to Eusebius' computation, which Hilary would probably accept without dispute, there were 5,228 years from the creation to our Lord's commencement of his mission in the 15th year of Tiberius, a.d. 29. [213] Sound as the reasoning is, it is typical of a certain unwillingness on Hilary's part to dwell upon the self-surrender of Christ; he prefers to think of Him rather as the Revealer of God than as the Redeemer of men. ii. Not only in the De Synodis but in the De Trinitate [190] he assigns the birth of the Son to the omnipotence, the counsel and will of God acting in co-operation with His nature. in Psalm 2:11, 25. The arguments by which this thesis is supported will be stated presently, in connection with Hilary's account of the Passion. The Arians made the most of their argument about two Gods; Hilary would not allow them the opportunity of imputing to the faithful a belief in three. In Tr. x. 16. We must now consider in what the preparation consisted; and here, at first sight, Hilary has involved himself in a grave difficulty. The same divine nature or substance exists eternally and in equal perfection in Both, un-begotten in the Father, begotten in the Son. In this Resurrection, the only step in this Divine work which is caused by sin, His full humanity partakes. Of His acceptance of the ordinary infirmities of humanity we have already spoken. 9; cf. [266] Comm. 35, 37, 59, Trin. Hilary has the distinction of being the only one of his contemporaries with the speculative genius to imagine this development ending in the abolition of incongruity and in the restoration of the full majesty of the Son and of man with Him [338] . 38; cf. 9, cxviii., Gimel, 12, Vau, 6. For this form is the glory of God, concealed by our Lord for the purposes of His human life, yet held by Hilary, to a greater extent, perhaps, than by any other theologian, to have been present with Him on earth. The tables are turned upon the former by emphatic insistence upon the power manifested in the humiliation and suffering of Christ. [237] Trin. Of the two great dangers, that of faith and that of life, the former seemed to him the more serious. Harnack, Dogmengesch. Of that controversy Athanasius was the hero; the arguments which he used and those which he refuted are admirably set forth in the introduction to the translation of his writings in this series. The soul of Christ, though truly human, was perfect; His body was that of a Person Divine as well as human. He had the full Greek sense of the divine unity; there is no suggestion of the possession by the Persons of the Trinity of contrasted or complementary qualities. in Psalm 119:20, cxxxiv. Here again the starting-point is human knowledge. As we have seen, men are created with such elevation as their final cause; they have the innate certainty that their soul is of Divine origin and a natural longing for the knowledge and hope of things eternal [333] . The Introduction to the Benedictine edition is useful, though its value is lessened by an evident desire to make Hilary conform to the accepted opinions of a later age. ), as well as in the world. viii. in Psalm 138:6) gives the ordinary text, without any hint that he knew of an important variant. Harnack, ii. It must suffice to say, with the Apostle, simply that He is the Spirit of God. cit. This was no mere pardonable excitement of feeling; it was a Christian duty and privilege to rejoice in the future destruction of his opponents. 59. ix. [155] Trin. Yet the title Spirit' is often used both for Father and for Son; in proof of this St. John iv.24 and 2 Cor. 45. 28. 17. This is, indeed, worthy of all admiration. 14, concursus utriusque formæ. But the importance of Christ's work within Himself, in harmonising the two natures, has withdrawn most of Hilary's attention from His work within the believing soul; and the impression which Hilary's writings leave upon the mind concerning the Saviour and redeemed mankind is that of allied forces seeking the same end but acting independently, each in a sphere of its own. 3. [288] Trin. vi. St. Hilary School. The accusation of intruding with a light heart into mysteries is very far from touching him. Till now he has spoken only of the Son; he now comes to speak of Christ, the name which the Son bears in relation to the world. 23, he argues, from the admitted likeness, that there can be no difference. This is a contradiction of his own explanation. Westcott on Cyril of Alexandria in St. John's Gospel (Speaker's Commentary), p. [339] Cf. Martyrdoms had, of course, ceased in Hilary's day throughout the Roman empire, but it is interesting to observe that the old opinion, which had such power in the third century, still survived. Tertullian had a still greater influence upon the writers who followed him. [361] E.g. We must remember the importance of names in Hilary's eyes. We may now turn to the practical teaching of Hilary. Trin. This was not because Hilary's explanation of our Lord's sufferings might seem to commend the Gospel to their prejudices; such a concession would have been repugnant to French's whole mode of thought. xi. [244] Cf. The more usual account is that which is required by Hilary's doctrine of the separate creation of every human soul, which is good, because it is God's immediate work, and has a natural tendency to, and fitness for, perfection. There would have been a true body, but it would have been difficult for us to believe it. If we would appreciate him aright as one of the builders of the dogmatic structure of the Faith, we must omit from the materials of our estimate a great part of his writings, and a part which has had a wider influence than any other. Christ is Man because He is perfectly like man, just as in the Homoeusian argument He is God because He is perfectly like God. Read more about this award on our News page. The passage is treated at much greater length in Athanasius' Discourses against the Arians, ii. But, in justice to Hilary, we must remember that in these speculations he is venturing away from the established standards of doctrine. 11, 39, x. But he shows clearly, by the short space he allows to it, that it is not in his eyes of co-ordinate importance with the other truths of which he treats. The same title of beatissimus is given to Daniel and to St. Paul when both are cited in Comm. in Psalm 54:2. [291] E.g. 18. In Trin. 25, unigenitus Deus....Virginis utero insertus accrescit. But he is influenced (see especially p. 404) by the desire to save Hilary's consistency rather than to state his actual opinion. in Psalm 145:1. [376] Tr. vi. The unity is also strongly put in Trin. We must first premise that Christ's work as our Example as well as our Saviour is fully recognised. [204] Trin. Even the Psalmist, himself perfect in all good works, prayed for mercy; he put his whole trust in God, and so must we [400] . [324] Dorner, I. ii. in Psalm 145:1. ST Hilary of Poitiers Church - School is located at 349 Twin Oaks Dr in Raceland, LA - Lafourche County and is a business listed in the categories Elementary Schools, Secondary Schools, Elementary And Secondary Schools and School Secondary & Elementary. liv. [190] E.g. ix. [326] Ib. 271. Faith must be accurately informed as well as sincere. v. 17. [292] Tr. §§ 55, 56, the subject is introduced, as if by an after thought, and even more briefly than in the second book. xxxi. Such is the case here; Hilary's is a logical position, but the logical process has been arrested. But if Christ is thus everything to man, humanity has also, in the foreordained purpose of God, something to confer upon Christ. But Scripture is not only harmonious throughout, as Origen had taught; it is also never otiose. 4. Hence he emphasises the Passion, because in so doing he magnifies the Divine nature of Him Who sustained it [383] . 15, 18, 25. And the human body would have had no glory, for its glory is that Christ has taken it, worn it awhile in its imperfect state, laid it aside and finally resumed it in its perfection. 7. Tr. The writings of Hilary are the quarry whence many of the best thoughts of Ambrose and of Leo are hewn. It may be that we are sober because we are, in a sense, disillusioned; that modern Christian thought which starts from the old premises tends to excess of circumspection. But, as we saw, this part of the De Trinitate is probably an early work, and does not represent Hilary's later thought. in Psalm 54:6. in Matthew 2:6; Tr. 23, 35, and cf. 1. And these two natures do not stand isolated and apart, merely contained within the limits of one personality. Nun, 11 f.[365] Förster, loc. Hil. The self-emptying itself was not a self-determination, instant and complete, made before the Incarnation, but, as we saw, a process which continued throughout Christ's life on earth and was active to the end. 19, perfectum ipsa de suis non imminuta generavit. 23, 47 in. 44. [242] Trin. [351] Ib. in Matthew 1. [371] Ib. cxviii., Aleph, 1, cxxxi. x. [188] Trin. Trin. 6, 7; Trin. Or as Hilary puts it, Trin. For the fulfilment of the Divine purpose, for our assurance of the reality of His work, the acts had to be done; but it was sufficient that they should be done by a dispensation, in other words, that the events should be real and yet the feelings be absent of which, had the events happened to us, we should have been conscious. in Matthew 4:14, Tr. in Psalm 66:2; Comm. Elsewhere, however, Hilary recognises the possibility, under existing conditions, of a sinless life. And the dignity of man, impressed upon him by the great Alexandrians, seemed to demand for humanity the fullest liberty. It also occurs once or twice in translations from the Greek, probably by another hand than Hilary's; but from his own authorship it is completely absent. [249] Trin. [218] Cf. in Matt. When I consented in the first instance to edit the volume, it was with the distinct understanding that I could not myself undertake the translation, but that I would do my best to find translators and see the work through the press. in Psalm 2:27, liii. 4. The purpose of the Old Testament Theophanies, it will be remembered, was the same. lxviii. [187] Doctrine of the Person of Christ, I. ii. [223] Trin. 40, habens in sacramento subiectionis esse ac manere quod non est. The measure of the love of God in Christ is the infinity He overpassed in uniting the Creator with the creature. Thus the Son becomes flesh, and that by true maternity on the Virgin's part. The death of Constantius in 361 ended the persecution of the orthodox Christians. The specimens of the Commentary on the Psalms were translated by the Rev. The church has a special place in the story of the Anglo Catholic movement in Cornwall. It is also a free satisfaction offered to God by Christ as Man, in order that His sufferings might release us from the punishment we had deserved, being accepted instead of ours [386] . On this high level Christ always dwelt. [146] Those which have been in constant use in the preparation of this chapter have been an excellent article by Th. in Psalm 125:1. Search; Help [375] E.g. Hilary also speaks of Christ as gerens nos, Trin. He was, as we saw, no Hebrew Scholar, and had small respect either for the versions which competed with the Septuagint or for the Latin rendering of the old Testament, but there is little evidence [148] that he was dissatisfied with the Latin of the New; in fact, in one instance, whether through habitual contentment with his Latin or through momentary carelessness in verifying the sense, he bases an argument on a thoroughly false interpretation [149] . This birth is followed by another, the effect and importance of which is more obvious, that of the Resurrection, the birthday of His humanity to glory [324] .' x. [201] Trin. Thus, negatively if not positively, the Septuagint must guide our judgement [162] . ib. the argument which is also Athanasian, of vii. 40. 268, justly praises Hilary for greater accuracy than his contemporaries in laying stress upon each of the constituent elements of Christ's humanity, and especially upon the soul; in this respect following Tertullian and Origen. 14 is susceptible of another interpretation. [172] E.g. 45. 38; cf. His story is… Indebtedness to other works is from time to time acknowledged in the notes. Syn. And conversely the fact that Scripture speaks of God the Son is proof of the fatherhood. If man is made in the image of Both, if one Spirit belongs to Both, there can be no difference of nature between the Two. His prayer expresses no need of His own, but is meant to teach us the lesson of meekness. in Psalm 17:2, 4. Yet even in this there are large spaces of his argument where these considerations have a place, though only to give local colour, so to speak, and a sense of reality to the description of a purpose formed and a work done for man because he is man, not because he is fallen. 48, emptying Himself' might have been a single act; hiding Himself within Himself' was a sustained course of conduct. 417. He may also have been influenced by such Biblical passages as Revelation 14:1, where the Spirit is unnamed. Tr. Indeed, we may even assert that they, together with some strange speculations and many instances of which interpretation, which are, however, no part of the structure of his argument and could not affect its solidity, actually enhance its human and historical interest. Hence, though Hilary frequently discriminates between Christ's utterances as God and as Man [291] , he never fails to keep his reader's attention fixed upon the unity of His Person. 4, vi. 38, habitus demutatio, and similarly ib. Thus Christ's life in the world was a period of transition. Gamurrini, p. iv. Dealing, as he did, with the subject in hortatory writings, hardly at all, and only incidentally, in his formal treatise on the Trinity, he preferred to regard it as a matter of morals rather than of doctrine. Since, then, compliance or non-compliance with one of God's demands, that for faith in His revelation, depends upon the will, it was natural that Hilary should lay stress upon the importance of the will in regard to God's other demand, that for a Christian life. The interest of the De Trinitate is greatly heightened by the skill and courage with which Hilary will handle some seeming paradox, and make the antithesis of opposed infinities conduce to reverence for Him of Whom they are aspects. He. But heresy concerning Christ, whatever the conduct and character of the heretic, excludes all possibility of salvation, for it necessarily cuts him off from the one Faith and the one Church which are the condition and the sphere of growth towards perfection; and the severance is just, because misbelief is a wilful sin. 23; Tr. 12. In Him, by the same means, there is contained the congregation, so to speak, of the whole race of men.' Yet the humanity will still exist, for it is inseparable from the Divinity, and will consist, as before, of body and soul. Christ, by virtue of His creative power, might have made for Himself a true body, by means of which to fulfil God's purposes, that should have been free from these infirmities. xcv. For the sake of conciseness the word Person has been often used in the English where it is absent, and absent designedly in the Latin. These are only a few of many instances [178] . He came at a still more formative and critical time, and the vis vivida of his original and wayward genius has rarely been equalled. [372] Comm. In a great measure he has succeeded in retaining this simplicity in regard to the doctrine of God. ix. xi. The devil was in the wrong throughout. [295] Trin. He may also have been influenced by such Biblical passages as Revelation 14:1, where the Spirit is unnamed. in Psalm 53:12. Hilary is fearful of weakening man's sense of moral responsibility by dwelling too much upon God's work which, however, he does not fail to recognise. 38. viii. [219] Trin. ib. Such conduct places those who practice it on the same level with those whose lives are formally consecrated; the state of the latter being regarded, as always in early times, as admirable in itself, and not as a means towards higher things. 28, x. 21 f. is an argument analogous to that of the De Synodis concerning the Godhead. lxvii. lii. x. Man in Him has, in a true sense, become God [332] ; and though Hilary as a rule avoids the phrase, familiar to him in the writings of his Alexandrian teachers and freely used by Athanasius and other of his contemporaries, that men become gods because God became Man, still the thought which it coveys is constantly present to his mind. The Nicene leaders had certainly counted the cost when they adopted as the test of orthodoxy the same word which Paul had used for the inculcation of error. Process has been somewhat isolated and apart, merely contained within the memory of living men [! 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